The Qur'an reveals much that has been in circulation for almost 600 years before Muhammad. The story of Adam, Moses, Jesus, Mary, Noah, Abraham, Ishmael and Isaac all have been around and in talked about around camp fires for generations. What was entirely new, not known at the time and revealed by Angel Gabriel to Muhammad?
Please provide reasoned arguments with examples. It does not constitute an answer to simply to point to a website or a book. Quote a passage and say why it is new and not one that was a reinterpretation of what was there before.
Use a website as reference or for further reading. Simply making a claim without giving a reasoned argument only demonstrates blind faith not logic.
وأنزلنا إليك الكتاب بالحق مصدقا لما بين يديه من الكتاب ومهيمنا عليه فاحكم بينهم بما أنزل الله ولا تتبع أهواءهم عما جاءك من الحق لكلّ جعلنا منكم شرعة ومنهاجا ولو شاء الله لجعلكم أمة واحدة ولكن ليبلوكم في ما آتاكم فاستبقوا الخيرات إلى الله مرجعكم جميعا فينبئكم بما كنتم فيه تختلفون
And We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], the Book in truth, confirming that which preceded it of the Scripture and as a criterion over it. So judge between them by what Allah has revealed and do not follow their inclinations away from what has come to you of the truth. To each of you We prescribed a law and a method. Had Allah willed, He would have made you one nation [united in religion], but [He intended] to test you in what He has given you; so race to [all that is] good. To Allah is your return all together, and He will [then] inform you concerning that over which you used to differ.
The point is that the message of the Qur'an was not new: it was (and is) a call to worship one God with no partners. This is what the previous books of scripture said too. And the previous prophets (like Moses, Adam, Jesus, Mary, etc).
But as the verse above says, the Qur'an was a criteria over it, to help us really understand the messages of the previous people which had since become distorted. So distorted in fact, that people started worshipping other entities.
So even though it talks about the same people, and same stories, it corrects the record. Examples of correction (compared to say the Bible) include. For brevity, I haven't included the Biblical vs Qur'anic references; but it should give you an idea.
The idea that Eve is the one who tempted Adam to sin. In the Qur'anic telling both are responsible. Furthermore, Adam is forgiven, so there is no notion of original sin.
Logical arguments about the divinity of Jesus are given and discussed. For example, the Qur'an argues something along the lines of: "If Jesus is special because he has no father, then isn't Adam even more special, since has no father OR mother? Doesn't it make more sense to worship Adam, then?"
So it corrected the telling of the stories of the past. In addition there were other stories not in the Bible. The chapter of the Qur'an called The Cave (Surat Al-Kahf - The Noble Qur'an - القرآن الكريم -- don't be shy to read it, it should only take you ten minutes), contains a number of these stories. Plus, there are prophets, like: Saleh, Hud and Luqman that are not in the Biblical tradition.
Aside from stories there are other things included in the Qur'an that are really important that differentiate it from the previous revelations:
A call to pure monotheism and a mission to try to guide all of humanity to a purely monotheistic view.
A system of law for all humanity to establish justice and fairness (covering everything from financial transactions, family law and inheritance to criminal offences).
A system of worship (e.g. prayer, fasting, alms giving, pilgrimage) to maintain one's relationship with God.
A set of manners and morals that should guide people's interactions with one another.
Some of these are touched on by the other texts, but many parts of these are unique to Islam.
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